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ACNE: what is it?

Acne is a skin disease, more properly an inflammatory state of the sebaceous glands that can manifest itself in several ways:  

Comedones - the white and black points that characterize the occlusion of the follicular ostium  inside which there are fats,  keratinmelaninhairs  And  bacteria , including the  Propionibacterium acnes.

Papules  -  small solid pads  of the  skin . Papules do not contain  pus , unlike the  pustules .

Pustules  - acneic lesions of the skin in relief, even serious and disfiguring, product of the action of germs that work on previous papules, containing pus.

Cyst - cavity or pouch  closed by one  membrane  distinct, containing purulent exudate tissue (pus) .

Fistulizations - when cysts join deep into the skin and become aggravated.
The skin, as we have already said, is the largest organ in the human body, the outermost layer is called the epidermis, the intermediate one is the dermis, in which there are support structures such as collagen, hair bulbs and sebaceous glands. . It is from these glands that it originates
Each hair has an attached gland that produces sebum, or the fat that gives the skin elasticity and protection.
Excessive sebum production (maximum between 10 and 12 years of age) leads to an accumulation of material in the gland. An anatomical peculiarity of the skin: a small hair corresponds to a large sebaceous gland, and it is for this reason that the "T" zone is usually the one most affected by acne.



How Does Acne Form?

The "pore" from which the hair comes out is filled with sebum and dead epithelial cells, becoming blocked, appearing as a white point (closed blackhead).
The plug that plugs the pore can open due to the pressure underneath
  of the sebum continuously produced, oxidizing in the air can lead to the formation of a  blackhead (open blackhead). When the pore plug resists, without opening, the sebum accumulates in the canal of the pilosebaceous gland. The moment the accumulation tears  the sheath that  lines the canal causing inflammation. In the case of a damaged epidermis, a pustule, more commonly called a boil, or a papule may appear.
More serious situation if the inflammation does not find a outlet, a way out on the surface, gives rise to cysts or nodules.
Acne of the pubertal / adolescent phase
  it mostly affects the "T-zone" forehead and nose; stage acne  adult, on the other hand, originates more in the lower part of the face.

Acne classification

We can distinguish different types of acne:

  • Mild comedonic:  moderate presence of blackheads in the "T-zone" (forehead and nose)

  • Severe comedonic:  notable and widespread presence of blackheads on the entire face and on  back.

  • Papulus  - Comedonica: a hybrid presence of comedones and inflamed swellings.

  • Papulus - Pustular:  presence of papules e  pustules.

  • Pustular :  inflammation  diffuse with papules  transformed into pustules.

  • Pustule - Cystic: presence of  cysts, hard lumps containing sebum e  keratin .

  • Cystic:  greater presence of cysts are compared to pustules.

  • Conglobata:  aggregated comedones to create  deep lesions that will inevitably leave scars.

Causes of Acne

The appearance of acne is caused by several factors that we can diversify into:

  • Hormonal imbalances: the sebaceous gland, in response to male hormones ( testosterone ), present in both males and females, produces an excess of sebum. This does not mean that there is a hormonal imbalance, but simply the sebaceous gland "works" in excess.

  • Bacterial causes: acne is favored by a  bacterium  that is called  Propionibacterium Acnes  which, normally, lives on the skin in physiological conditions. If skin pores become blocked, it multiplies and causes inflammation.

  • Genetic predisposition: if we belong to a family where you have suffered from acne, we can prevent it.

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