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We talk often  of "skin types" and we do it by defining the  

following 4 specificities: normal skin,  dry,  oily or mixed.

But what does this mean? What are the differences?

How to understand what kind of skin we have?

Generally speaking, every skin type satisfies  a check list of

distinct characteristics, even very obvious ones, that we can

independently use to define our status,  

or rather, the status of our skin: normal, dry,

oily or mixed.

Understanding which of these types represents us is important  

because  allows us to identify the  4 types of leather

most popular  and, at the same time, the specifications  needs

basic cosmetics to define home self-care.

Not only that, knowing your skin is important to define

their own lifestyle, their own eating habits, etc.,  

which have a fundamental role in health management

of your own skin.

Normal skin:  

Normal skin has a good cell turnover at the epidermal level, a uniform and functional hydrolipidic film, with an optimal and constant value of NMF  (natural hydration factor) together with  adequate production of ceramides.

Equilibrium is the correct term to describe this coexistence of structural and functional characteristics.

Normal skin can be:

  • consequence of one's genetic heritage.

  • the result of attention in the choice of home self-care, or products  more suitable for maintaining healthy skin, preventing alterations such as dryness or greasiness of the skin.

  • or a mix of several aspects: lifestyle, genetics and healthy eating habits and caring for your appearance.

Those with normal skin, in addition to a healthy diet and lifestyle, must also take care of  do not choose aggressive detergents  which could alter the hydrolipidic film.

At the same time, however, it is important  choose the most suitable cosmetic to withstand the external environment  according to the seasons. For example, in winter, with the cold, the hands are always exposed to wind and frost, as well as in summer, after exposure to the sun, the skin must always be nourished and protected.


Dry skin:

Dry skin is  rough,  it is easily irritated and tends to "pull".  Dry skin is never shiny, not even in the T zone, which is the area that includes the forehead, nose,  ment and which it generally produces  more sebum.

Dry skin  it is lacking in water, dehydrated, but also in essential nutrients fundamental to maintain softness, brightness and elasticity. Water and nutrients guarantee the maintenance of the hydrolipidic film.

Dry skin is the result of:

  • deficiency of ceramides (lipid molecules)

  • alterations in the cell turnover of the epidermis

  • alterations of the hydrolipidic film

  • deficiency of the Natural Hydration Factor  (mixture of water-soluble substances able to bind to water)

To these, there are others  factors:

  • genetics  → is recognized  some familiarity in people with dry skin

  • age  → the elderly subject tends to have drier skin than the young subject

  • stages of life  → for example, menopause and aging, but also pregnancy

  • environmental pollution

  • hormonal changes  → in particular, during  menopause or pregnancy stages  characterized by hormonal alterations that could induce skin changes favoring dryness

  • humidity of the environment  → a dry environment favors the evaporation of surface water

  • conditions of general dehydration  → drinking water is a healthy habit that also applies to preventing dry skin

  • Power supply  healthy, varied and rich in fruit and vegetables → we are what we eat even when it comes to skin

  • exposure to the sun

  • use of too aggressive detergents    the presence of surfactants or other degreasing agents promotes dryness of the skin, washing away the hydrolipidic film

  • use of unsuitable cosmetics  → dry skin must be nourished and hydrated, so depending on the degree of dryness of the skin, you must choose products that are not only moisturizing. The choice of cosmetics is essential and  must meet the needs of the skin and change according to whether it is  dry, very dry or even peeling skin .

Oily skin:  

Main feature of the  oily skin is the excessive production of sebum  on the part of the hair follicles, manifesting  a shiny and oily appearance.

Oily skin is also characterized by  more or less dilated pores  which tend to develop  black dots, the result of the concentration of sebum and foreign bodies that accumulate, spread over the face and other parts of the body.

Oily skin tends to evolve into  oily or impure acne-prone skin, both expressions of a skin particularly rich in sebum due to excessive reactivity to internal or external stimuli.  

In particular, the deficiency of ceramides and / or an altered hydrolipidic film are often highlighted, to which  the skin reacts  excessively  producing sebum in abundance in order to fill its lipid deficiencies  and return to a state of structural integrity.

When it comes to the skin, then, the body focuses on promoting the rebalancing of the elements that guarantee its natural protective barrier function of the human body, as the first line of defense from the outside to the inside.

Oily skin, therefore,  And  often  the result of an excessive response to skin lipid deficiency.

This explains why people with oily skin  they must not use degreasing detergents: removing excess sebum further nourishes its production, entering an unhealthy circle reminiscent of the classic "snake eating its own tail".

But what are the  main causes  of oily skin?

  • Genetic inheritance: Familiarity has been shown in some people with oily skin

  • Hormonal alterations: puberty is a phase of life in which oily skin problems can occur up to acne in relation to evident hormonal alterations and fluctuations. In some women, even cycle-related hormonal fluctuations can affect sebum production and so in other situations characterized by changes in hormone levels

  • Cleaning with aggressive detergents and degreasers

  • Use of cosmetic products not suitable for the type of skin

In particular, oily skin needs careful daily cleaning, at least morning and evening, with delicate detergents that do not wash off the hydrolipidic film and astrigent products, which limit the dilation of the pores and keep its surface adequately "disinfected", limiting the attack of microorganisms that favor the development of blackheads and acne.

In addition, you must choose a cosmetic that rebalances the production of sebum by nourishing the skin with lipids it needs and with sebum-balancing actives.

These products generally have a fat component and prefer O / A creams or gels with a sebum-normalizing, moisturizing-normalizing and astringent action.

Mixed skin:  

Mixed skin is probably that  more widespread, also because it is often  bound to  "Bad"  beauty habits or poor skin care  - daily exposed to the external environment, its pollution and its seasonal variability.

Combination skin tends to be  particularly oily in the T-zone, nose, forehead and chin, e  dry  let's hope  on cheeks,  eye contour,  hands,  elbows and legs.

On the face, moreover,  2 situations can be highlighted:

  1. combination skin tending to dry, if the dry areas are more extensive

  2. combination skin tending to oily, otherwise

In both cases, areas of normal skin can be seen where tendencies to extremes balance out.

Combination skin is the consequence of:

  • poor skin protection in summer or winter, in the sun or in contact with frost and wind

  • use of unsuitable or too aggressive cosmetics  that wash away the hydrolipidic film or alter the acid pH of the skin that reacts trying to re-balance the normal conditions in the affected areas

  • zonal alterations of the skin structure, the composition of the hydrolipidic film and the concentration of ceramides

  • unbalanced eating and lifestyle habits

Combination skin needs  cosmetics that re-balance its normal structure and functionality  in addition to the adoption of a varied, balanced diet rich in fruit and vegetables and a healthier life.

In particular, it will have to be done  pay attention to the choice of detergent  suitable for cleaning face and body and at the same time it will be necessary  choose tonics,  masks  and other cosmetic products  with targeted action in the area of interest.

As for creams, oils and gels, you will have to  choose  also in this case  the most suitable normalizing product for areas that are too dry or too oily on the face and body.

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